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8 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y

8

802.11
A family of specifications for wireless local area networks (WLANs) developed by a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

A

Access Control List
ACL. This is a database of network devices that are allowed to access resources on the network.
Access Point
AP. Device that allows wireless clients to connect to it and access the network
ActiveX
A Microsoft specification for the interaction of software components.
Address Resolution Protocol
ARP. Used to map MAC addresses to IP addresses so that conversions can be made in both directions.
Ad-hoc network
Peer-to-Peer network between wireless clients
ADSL
Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Advanced Encryption Standard
AES. Government encryption standard
Alphanumeric
Characters A-Z and 0-9
Antenna
Used to transmit and receive RF signals.
AppleTalk
A set of Local Area Network protocols developed by Apple for their computer systems
AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol
AARP. Used to map the MAC addresses of Apple computers to their AppleTalk network addresses, so that conversions can be made in both directions.
Application layer
7th Layer of the OSI model. Provides services to applications to ensure that they can communicate properly with other applications on a network.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This system of characters is most commonly used for text files
Attenuation
The loss in strength of digital and analog signals. The loss is greater when the signal is being transmitted over long distances.
Authentication
To provide credentials, like a Password, in order to verify that the person or device is really who they are claiming to be
Automatic Private IP Addressing
APIPA. An IP address that that a Windows computer will assign itself when it is configured to obtain an IP address automatically but no DHCP server is available on the network

B

Backward Compatible
The ability for new devices to communicate and interact with older legacy devices to guarantee interoperability
Bandwidth
The maximum amount of bytes or bits per second that can be transmitted to and from a network device
Basic Input/Output System
BIOS. A program that the processor of a computer uses to startup the system once it is turned on
Baud
Data transmission speed
Beacon
A data frame by which one of the stations in a Wi-Fi network periodically broadcasts network control data to other wireless stations.
Bit rate
The amount of bits that pass in given amount of time
Bit/sec
Bits per second
BOOTP
Bootstrap Protocol. Allows for computers to be booted up and given an IP address with no user intervention
Bottleneck
A time during processes when something causes the process to slowdown or stop all together
Broadband
A wide band of frequencies available for transmitting data
Broadcast
Transmitting data in all directions at once
Browser
A program that allows you to access resources on the web and provides them to you graphically

C

Cable modem
A device that allows you to connect a computer up to a coaxial cable and receive Internet access from your Cable provider
CardBus
A newer version of the PC Card or PCMCIA interface. It supports a 32-bit data path, DMA, and consumes less voltage
CAT 5
Category 5. Used for 10/100 Mbps or 1Gbps Ethernet connections
Client
A program or user that requests data from a server
Collision
When do two devices on the same Ethernet network try and transmit data at the exact same time.
Cookie
Information that is stored on the hard drive of your computer that holds your preferences to the site that gave your computer the cookie

D

Data
Information that has been translated into binary so that it can be processed or moved to another device
Data Encryption Standard
Uses a randomly selected 56-bit key that must be known by both the sender and the receiver when information is exchanged
Database
Organizes information so that it can be managed updated, as well as easily accessed by users or applications.
Data-Link layer
The second layer of the OSI model. Controls the movement of data on the physical link of a network
DB-25
A 25 ping male connector for attaching External modems or RS-232 serial devices
DB-9
A 9 pin connector for RS-232 connections
dBd
Decibels related to dipole antenna
dBi
Decibels relative to isotropic radiator
dBm
Decibels relative to one milliwatt
Decrypt
To unscramble an encrypted message back into plain text
Default
A predetermined value or setting that is used by a program when no user input has been entered for this value or setting
Demilitarized zone
DMZ: A single computer or group of computers that can be accessed by both users on the Internet as well as users on the Local Network, but that is not protected by the same security as the Local Network.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol: Used to automatically assign IP addresses from a predefined pool of addresses to computers or devices that request them
Digital certificate:
An electronic method of providing credentials to a server in order to have access to it or a network
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
DSSS: Modulation technique used by 802.11b wireless devices
DMZ
"Demilitarized Zone". A computer that logically sits in a "no-mans land" between the LAN and the WAN. The DMZ computer trades some of the protection of the router's security mechanisms for the convenience of being directly addressable from the Internet.
DNS
Domain Name System: Translates Domain Names to IP addresses
Domain name
A name that is associated with an IP address
Download
To send a request from one computer to another and have the file transmitted back to the requesting computer
DSL
Digital Subscriber Line. High bandwidth Internet connection over telephone lines
Duplex
Sending and Receiving data transmissions at the sane time
Dynamic DNS service
Dynamic DNS is provided by companies to allow users with Dynamic IP addresses to obtain a Domain Name that will always by linked to their changing IP address. The IP address is updated by either client software running on a computer or by a router that supports Dynamic DNS, whenever the IP address changes
Dynamic IP address
IP address that is assigned by a DHCP server and that may change. Cable Internet providers usually use this method to assign IP addresses to their customers.

E

EAP
Extensible Authentication Protocol
Email
Electronic Mail is a computer-stored message that is transmitted over the Internet
Encryption
Converting data into cyphertext so that it cannot be easily read
Ethernet
The most widely used technology for Local Area Networks.

F

Fiber optic
A way of sending data through light impulses over glass or plastic wire or fiber
File server
A computer on a network that stores data so that the other computers on the network can all access it
File sharing
Allowing data from computers on a network to be accessed by other computers on the network with different levels of access rights
Firewall
A device that protects resources of the Local Area Network from unauthorized users outside of the local network
Firmware
Programming that is inserted into a hardware device that tells it how to function
Fragmentation
Breaking up data into smaller pieces to make it easier to store
FTP
File Transfer Protocol. Easiest way to transfer files between computers on the Internet
Full-duplex
Sending and Receiving data at the same time

G

Gain
The amount an amplifier boosts the wireless signal
Gateway
A device that connects your network to another, like the internet
Gbps
Gigabits per second
Gigabit Ethernet
Transmission technology that provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second
GUI
Graphical user interface

H

H.323
A standard that provides consistency of voice and video transmissions and compatibility for videoconferencing devices
Half-duplex
Data cannot be transmitted and received at the same time
Hashing
Transforming a string of characters into a shorter string with a predefined length
Hexadecimal
Characters 0-9 and A-F
Hop
The action of data packets being transmitted from one router to another
Host
Computer on a network
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to transfer files from HTTP servers (web servers) to HTTP clients (web browsers)
HTTPS
HTTP over SSL is used to encrypt and decrypt HTTP transmissions
Hub
A networking device that connects multiple devices together

I

ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IGMP
Internet Group Management Protocol is used to make sure that computers can report their multicast group membership to adjacent routers
IIS
Internet Information Server is a WEB server and FTP server provided by Microsoft
IKE
Internet Key Exchange is used to ensure security for VPN connections
Infrastructure
In terms of a wireless network, this is when wireless clients use an Access Point to gain access to the network
Internet
A system of worldwide networks which use TCP/IP to allow for resources to be accessed from computers around the world
Internet Explorer
A World Wide Web browser created and provided by Microsoft
Internet Protocol
The method of transferring data from one computer to another on the Internet
Internet Protocol Security
IPsec provides security at the packet processing layer of network communication
Internet Service Provider
An ISP provides access to the Internet to individuals or companies
Intranet
A private network
Intrusion Detection
A type of security that scans a network to detect attacks coming from inside and outside of the network
IP
Internet Protocol
IP address
A 32-bit number, when talking about Internet Protocol Version 4, that identifies each computer that transmits data on the Internet or on an Intranet
IPsec
Internet Protocol Security
IPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange is a networking protocol developed by Novel to enable their Netware clients and servers to communicate
ISP
Internet Service Provider

J

Java
A programming language used to create programs and applets for web pages

K

Kbps
Kilobits per second
Kbyte
Kilobyte

L

L2TP
Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
LAN
Local Area Network
Latency
The amount of time that it takes a packet to get from the one point to another on a network. Also referred to as delay
LED
Light Emitting Diode
Legacy
Older devices or technology
Local Area Network
A group of computers in a building that usually access files from a server
LPR/LPD
"Line Printer Requestor"/"Line Printer Daemon". A TCP/IP protocol for transmitting streams of printer data.

M

MAC address
A unique hardware ID assigned to every Ethernet adapter by the manufacturer.
Mbps
Megabits per second
MDI
Medium Dependent Interface is an Ethernet port for a connection to a straight-through cable
MDIX
Medium Dependent Interface Crossover, is an Ethernet port for a connection to a crossover cable
MIB
Management Information Base is a set of objects that can be managed by using SNMP
Modem
A device that Modulates digital signals from a computer to an analog signal in order to transmit the signal over phone lines. It also Demodulates the analog signals coming from the phone lines to digital signals for your computer
MPPE
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption is used to secure data transmissions over PPTP connections
MTU
Maximum Transmission Unit is the largest packet that can be transmitted on a packet-based network like the Internet
Multicast
Sending data from one device to many devices on a network

N

NAT
Network Address Translation allows many private IP addresses to connect to the Internet, or another network, through one IP address
NetBEUI
NetBIOS Extended User Interface is a Local Area Network communication protocol. This is an updated version of NetBIOS
NetBIOS
Network Basic Input/Output System
Netmask
Determines what portion of an IP address designates the Network and which part designates the Host
Network Interface Card
A card installed in a computer or built onto the motherboard that allows the computer to connect to a network
Network Layer
The third layer of the OSI model which handles the routing of traffic on a network
Network Time Protocol
Used to synchronize the time of all the computers in a network
NIC
Network Interface Card
NTP
Network Time Protocol

O

OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing is the modulation technique for both 802.11a and 802.11g
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection is the reference model for how data should travel between two devices on a network
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol that is used more than RIP in larger scale networks because only changes to the routing table are sent to all the other routers in the network as opposed to sending the entire routing table at a regular interval, which is how RIP functions

P

Password
A sequence of characters that is used to authenticate requests to resources on a network
Personal Area Network
The interconnection of networking devices within a range of 10 meters
Physical layer
The first layer of the OSI model. Provides the hardware means of transmitting electrical signals on a data carrier
Ping
A utility program that verifies that a given Internet address exists and can receive messages. The utility sends a control packet to the given address and waits for a response.
PoE
Power over Ethernet is the means of transmitting electricity over the unused pairs in a category 5 Ethernet cable
POP3
Post Office Protocol 3 is used for receiving email
Port
A logical channel endpoint in a network. A computer might have only one physical channel (its Ethernet channel) but can have multiple ports (logical channels) each identified by a number.
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol is used for two computers to communicate with each over a serial interface, like a phone line
PPPoE
Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet is used to connect multiple computers to a remote server over Ethernet
PPTP
Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol is used for creating VPN tunnels over the Internet between two networks
Preamble
Used to synchronize communication timing between devices on a network

Q

QoS
Quality of Service

R

RADIUS
Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service allows for remote users to dial into a central server and be authenticated in order to access resources on a network
Reboot
To restart a computer and reload it's operating software or firmware from nonvolatile storage.
Rendezvous
Apple's version of UPnP, which allows for devices on a network to discover each other and be connected without the need to configure any settings
Repeater
Retransmits the signal of an Access Point in order to extend it's coverage
RIP
Routing Information Protocol is used to synchronize the routing table of all the routers on a network
RJ-11
The most commonly used connection method for telephones
RJ-45
The most commonly used connection method for Ethernet
RS-232C
The interface for serial communication between computers and other related devices
RSA
Algorithm used for encryption and authentication

S

Server
A computer on a network that provides services and resources to other computers on the network
Session key
An encryption and decryption key that is generated for every communication session between two computers
Session layer
The fifth layer of the OSI model which coordinates the connection and communication between applications on both ends
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
Used for sending and receiving email
Simple Network Management Protocol
Governs the management and monitoring of network devices
SIP
Session Initiation Protocol. A standard protocol for initiating a user session that involves multimedia content, such as voice or chat.
SMTP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
SOHO
Small Office/Home Office
SPI
Stateful Packet Inspection
SSH
Secure Shell is a command line interface that allows for secure connections to remote computers
SSID
Service Set Identifier is a name for a wireless network
Stateful inspection
A feature of a firewall that monitors outgoing and incoming traffic to make sure that only valid responses to outgoing requests are allowed to pass though the firewall
Subnet mask
Determines what portion of an IP address designates the Network and which part designates the Host
Syslog
System Logger -- a distributed logging interface for collecting in one place the logs from different sources. Originally written for UNIX, it is now available for other operating systems, including Windows.

T

TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TCP Raw
A TCP/IP protocol for transmitting streams of printer data.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol is a utility used for transferring files that is simpler to use than FTP but with less features
Throughput
The amount of data that can be transferred in a given time period
Traceroute
A utility displays the routes between you computer and specific destination

U

UDP
User Datagram Protocol
Unicast
Communication between a single sender and receiver
Universal Plug and Play
A standard that allows network devices to discover each other and configure themselves to be a part of the network
Upgrade
To install a more recent version of a software or firmware product
Upload
To send a request from one computer to another and have a file transmitted from the requesting computer to the other
UPnP
Universal Plug and Play
URL
Uniform Resource Locator is a unique address for files accessible on the Internet
USB
Universal Serial Bus
UTP
Unshielded Twisted Pair

V

Virtual Private Network
VPN: A secure tunnel over the Internet to connect remote offices or users to their company's network
VLAN
Virtual LAN
Voice over IP
Sending voice information over the Internet as opposed to the PSTN
VoIP
Voice over IP

W

Wake on LAN
Allows you to power up a computer though it's Network Interface Card
WAN
Wide Area Network
WCN
Windows Connect Now. A Microsoft method for configuring and bootstrapping wireless networking hardware (access points) and wireless clients, including PCs and other devices.
WDS
Wireless Distribution System. A system that enables the interconnection of access points wirelessly.
Web browser
A utility that allows you to view content and interact with all of the information on the World Wide Web
WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy is security for wireless networks that is supposed to be comparable to that of a wired network
Wide Area Network
The larger network that your LAN is connected to, which may be the Internet itself, or a regional or corporate network
Wi-Fi
Wireless Fidelity
Wi-Fi Protected Access
An updated version of security for wireless networks that provides authentication as well as encryption
Wireless ISP
A company that provides a broadband Internet connection over a wireless connection
Wireless LAN
Connecting to a Local Area Network over one of the 802.11 wireless standards
WISP
Wireless Internet Service Provider
WLAN
Wireless Local Area Network
WPA
Wi-Fi Protected Access. A Wi-Fi security enhancement that provides improved data encryption, relative to WEP.

X

xDSL
A generic term for the family of digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies, such as ADSL, HDSL, RADSL, and SDSL.

Y

Yagi antenna
A directional antenna used to concentrate wireless signals on a specific location